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Daily Archives: June 11, 2018

A starving ocean: Upwelling systems under climate change and the threat to global food security

Dr. Ivonne Montes, Researcher at the , is presently going to the 4th International Seminar on the Effects of Climate Modification on the World’s Oceans, ECCWO (Washington D.C., U.S.A., 4-8 June)– a significant gathering of leading scientists from more than 50 nations who are sharing the most recent science worrying climate modification effect on ocean ecosystems. She will co-convene a thematic session looking at the particular impacts of climate change on upwelling systems, environments to a few of the most commercially crucial fish types in the world.

This series of interviews invites you to dive into the Seminar’s major topics, through the eyes of women that have actually dedicated their lives to ocean science. Their insights offer us a cautioning about just how much is at stake when it comes to the preservation and sustainable usage of the ocean in an altering environment, but they also highlight how the clinical neighborhood can play a significant role in bridging the space between knowledge and action.

Thanks to a growing body of science, amazing innovations and discoveries, we now have a greater understanding of our world’s climate system– but how do we turn decision-relevant understanding into concrete actions towards delivering the ocean we require for the future we want? We asked Dr Montes to discuss why this is crucial to decision-makers and society at big.

How would you discuss upwelling systems and their significance to a politician and even your local councilor?Upwelling systems are

like surprise forests: they have a high abundance of ocean plants that provide big amounts of food for fishery production (the most crucial fisheries worldwide are located in these locations ). These ocean plants are likewise accountable for producing a big part of the oxygen we breathe by means of photosynthesis. More than 60 %of the oxygen we breathe is produced by ocean plants! This is only possible due to ecological conditions. Some functions in wind patterns bring nutrients from the bottom to the surface of the ocean, keeping equilibrium in climate and weather patterns in highly populated regions. These systems are really important for human sustainable development as well as sustainable advancement of nations. But these hidden forests are at substantial risk from ocean” dead”or”oxygen minimum”

zones– substantial areas where oxygen is extremely low or non-existent. Microbial procedures in these locations release a great deal of Greenhouse and Nitrogen gases(crucial players in climate change), making the ocean more anemic and less productive. This loss belongs to the deforestation of the Amazon. Can we forecast the effects of environment change on these systems? If no, exactly what is missing? If yes, what

do we know?Well, depending on the system that we refer to(Humboldt, California, Canarias, Benguela are the major ones)

, I believe we can try to forecast some changes and in specific direct feedbacks. Thinking about that response to changes is not linear and that a broad variety of spatial and temporal variability is included, more multidisciplinary research studies require to be performed. Integrating observations, designs and various disciplines is important. How do researchers collaborate to study these cross-border upwelling systems? Is it enough? Do we need more partnership to fill knowledge gaps?Personally I

think that efforts are hardly any or non-existent. A number of specialist groups exist but they are sadly comprised of the very same scientists, and there is inadequate work

to integrate local researchers or scientists from different areas. On the other hand, local scientists are concentrated on responding to the requirements of their own nation, where they are often totally separated due to the lack of communication with the international world of science. Simply put, I think we need projects that contribute at both nationwide and global levels as well as ensure capacity structure. Are deregulated upwelling systems a real threat to worldwide food security? How huge of a threat?It is absolutely a subject, however we require more clinical evidence to be able to determine and measure the precise threats. Otherwise, we risk going into pure

speculation. Is there anything residents can do in their everyday lives to help?We, people, should be more respectful of exactly what is given to us. We need to likewise keep abreast of what is occurring and/or need info from local federal governments if there isn’t any– that can offer an extra inspiration for politicians and

encourage argument on these subjects. *** UNESCO’s Intergovernmental Oceanographic

Commission( IOC)has co-organized this quadrennial worldwide symposium because 2008 in cooperation with the International Council for the Expedition of the Sea(ICES), the North Pacific Marine Science Company(PICES), and the Food and Agricultural Company of the United Nations(FAO). Follow all

ECCWO news on Twitter at @ECCWO!.?.!! For more info, please contact: Salvatore Arico(s.arico(at)unesco.org)Ivonne Montes(ivonne.montes(at)gmail.com) Or go to: ECCWO Seminar website

Source

https://en.unesco.org/news/starving-ocean-upwelling-systems-under-climate-change-and-threat-global-food-security

Conflicts, adverse weather condition threaten food security in Nigeria, others– FAO

Conflicts, adverse weather condition threaten food security in Nigeria, others– FAO

The Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) says conflicts and adverse local weather conditions have continued to acutely aggravate and prolong severe food insecurity in parts of Nigeria and 38 other countries.

René Castro, Assistant-Director General of the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)

The UN food agency also said the situations had raised the list of countries requiring external assistance for food, according to its new “Crop Prospects and Food Situation” report.

Underscoring how persistent conflicts and adverse climate shocks were taking a toll on food security, no country exited the list, which comprises 31 countries in Africa, seven in Asia as well as Haiti.

That list now comprises 39 countries, up two countries from the last report in March, with the addition of Cabo Verde and Senegal.

These include Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Swaziland, Uganda, and Zimbabwe.

The other countries outside of Africa are Afghanistan, Haiti, Iraq, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Myanmar, Pakistan, Syria, and Yemen.

FAO’s latest forecast for world cereal production in 2018 foresees a 1.5 percent annual drop from the record high realised in 2017.

“Conflicts have choked agricultural activity in swathes of Central Africa, notably in the Central African Republic and parts of the Democratic Republic of Congo, where access to food is further hindered by surging inflation.

“Conflicts in Nigeria and Libya have led to less demand for meat, one reason behind the drastic drop in incomes for many pastoralist households in the Sahel region, where grazing and water resources are already strained and the ongoing lean season is expected to last longer than usual.”

The UN food agency said recent rains point to cereal production gains in East Africa after consecutive seasons of drought-reduced harvests, FAO said.

It, however, noted that recent abundant rains triggered flooding in Somalia, Ethiopia and Kenya, displacing about 800,000 people.

In contrast to the trend in the sub-region, staple food prices are high and rising in the Sudan and South Sudan, affecting access to food and intensifying food insecurity risks, FAO said.

The UN agency said the number of severely food insecure people in South Sudan was expected to rise – in the absence of humanitarian assistance – to 7.1 million people during the current peak of the lean season (from June to July).

By Prudence Arobani